Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), induced by the adoptive transfer of myelin-reactive CD4+ T cells into naive syngeneic mice. It is widely used as a rodent model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The development of EAE lesions is initiated when transferred CD4+ T cells access the CNS and are reactivated by local antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bearing endogenous myelin peptide/MHC class II complexes. The identity of the CNS-resident, lesion-initiating APCs is widely debated. Here we demonstrate that classical dendritic cells (cDCs) normally reside in the meninges, brain, and spinal cord in the steady state. These cells are unique among candidate CNS APCs in their ability to stimulate naive, as well as effector, myelin-specific T cells to proliferate and produce proinflammatory cytokines directly ex vivo. cDCs expanded in the meninges and CNS parenchyma in association with disease progression. Selective depletion of cDCs led to a decrease in the number of myelin-primed donor T cells in the CNS and reduced the incidence of clinical EAE by half. Based on our findings, we propose that cDCs, and the factors that regulate them, be further investigated as potential therapeutic targets in MS.
David A. Giles, Patrick C. Duncker, Nicole M. Wilkinson, Jesse M. Washnock-Schmid, Benjamin M. Segal
Usage data is cumulative from October 2018 through October 2019.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.