Purinergic receptor-7 (P2X7R) signaling controls Th17 and Th1 generation/differentiation, while NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) acts as a Th2 transcriptional factor. Here, we demonstrated the existence of a P2X7R/NLRP3 pathway in T cells that is dysregulated by a P2X7R intracellular region loss-of-function mutation, leading to NLRP3 displacement and to excessive Th17 generation due to abrogation of the NLRP3-mediated Th2 program. This ultimately resulted in poor outcomes in cardiac-transplanted patients carrying the mutant allele, who showed abnormal Th17 generation. Transient NLRP3 silencing in nonmutant T cells or overexpression in mutant T cells normalized the Th profile. Interestingly, IL-17 blockade reduced Th17 skewing of human T cells in vitro and abrogated the severe allograft vasculopathy and abnormal Th17 generation observed in preclinical models in which P2X7R was genetically deleted. This P2X7R intracellular region mutation thus impaired the modulatory effects of P2X7R on NLRP3 expression and function in T cells and led to NLRP3 dysregulation and Th17 skewing, delineating a high-risk group of cardiac-transplanted patients who may benefit from personalized therapy.
Francesca D’Addio, Andrea Vergani, Luciano Potena, Anna Maestroni, Vera Usuelli, Moufida Ben Nasr, Roberto Bassi, Sara Tezza, Sergio Dellepiane, Basset El Essawy, Maria Iascone, Attilio Iacovoni, Laura Borgese, Kaifeng Liu, Gary Visner, Sirano Dhe-Paganon, Domenico Corradi, Reza Abdi, Randall C. Starling, Franco Folli, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Mohamed H. Sayegh, Peter S. Heeger, Anil Chandraker, Francesco Grigioni, Paolo Fiorina
Germinal centers (GCs) are major sites of clonal B cell expansion and generation of long-lived, high-affinity antibody responses to pathogens. Signaling through toll-like receptors(TLRs) on B cells promotes many aspects of GC B cell responses, including affinity-maturation, class-switching and differentiation into long-lived memory and plasma cells. A major challenge for effective vaccination is identifying strategies to specifically promote GC B cell responses. Here we have identified a mechanism of regulation of GC B cell TLR signaling, mediated by αv integrins and non-canonical autophagy. Using B cell-specific αv-knockout mice, we show that loss of αv-mediated TLR regulation increased GC B cell expansion, somatic-hypermutation, class-switching, and generation of long-lived plasma cells after immunization with virus-like particles(VLPs) or antigens associated with TLR ligand adjuvants. Furthermore, targeting αv-mediated regulation increased the magnitude and breadth of antibody responses to influenza virus vaccination. These data therefore identify a mechanism of regulation of GC B cells, which can be targeted to enhance antibody responses to vaccination.
Fiona Raso, Sara Sagadiev, Samuel Du, Emily Gage, Tanvi Arkatkar, Genita Metzler, Lynda M. Stuart, Mark T. Orr, David Rawlings, Shaun Jackson, Adam Lacy-Hulbert, Mridu Acharya
T cells play a key role in immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, but how cytotoxic T cells interact with podocytes remains unclear. To address this, we injected EGFP-specific CD8+ T cells from just EGFP death inducing (Jedi) mice into transgenic mice with podocyte-specific expression of EGFP. In healthy mice, Jedi T cells could not access EGFP+ podocytes. Conversely, when we induced nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NTSN) and injected Jedi T cells, EGFP+ podocyte transgenic mice showed enhanced proteinuria and higher blood urea levels. Morphometric analysis showed greater loss of EGFP+ podocytes, which was associated with severe crescentic and necrotizing glomerulonephritis. Notably, only glomeruli with disrupted Bowman’s capsule displayed massive CD8+ T cell infiltrates that were in direct contact with EGFP+ podocytes, causing their apoptosis. Thus, under control conditions with intact Bowman’s capsule, podocytes are not accessible to CD8+ T cells. However, breaches in Bowman’s capsule, as also noted in human crescentic glomerulonephritis, allow access of CD8+ T cells to the glomerular tuft and podocytes, resulting in their destruction. Through these mechanisms, a potentially reversible glomerulonephritis undergoes an augmentation process to a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, leading to end-stage kidney disease. Translating these mechanistic insights to human crescentic nephritis should direct future therapeutic interventions at blocking CD8+ T cells, especially in progressive stages of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
Anqun Chen, Kyung Lee, Vivette D. D’Agati, Chengguo Wei, Jia Fu, Tian-Jun Guan, John Cijiang He, Detlef Schlondorff, Judith Agudo
Bi-allelic loss-of-function mutations of the NCF4 gene, encoding the p40phox subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, have been described in only one patient. We report 24 p40phox-deficient patients from 12 additional families in eight countries. These patients display eight different in-frame or out-of-frame mutations of NCF4, homozygous in 11 families and compound heterozygous in another. When overexpressed in NB4 neutrophil-like cells and EBV-transformed B cells in vitro, the mutant alleles were found to be loss-of-function, with the exception of the p.R58C and c.120_134del alleles, which were hypomorphic. Particle-induced NADPH oxidase activity was subnormal in the patients’ neutrophils, whereas PMA-induced DHR oxidation, which is widely used as a diagnostic test for CGD, was normal in some of the patients. Moreover, the NADPH oxidase activity of EBV-transformed B cells was also subnormal, whereas that of mononuclear phagocytes was normal. Finally, the killing of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by neutrophils was conserved in these patients. The patients described here suffer from hyperinflammation and peripheral infections, but they do not display any of the invasive bacterial and fungal infections seen in CGD. In conclusion, inherited p40phox deficiency underlies a distinctive condition, resembling a mild, atypical form of CGD
Annemarie van de Geer, Alejandro Nieto-Patlán, Douglas B. Kuhns, Anton T.J. Tool, Andrés A. Arias, Matthieu Bouaziz, Martin de Boer, José Luis Franco, Roel P. Gazendam, John L. van Hamme, Michel van Houdt, Karin van Leeuwen, Paul J.H. Verkuijlen, Timo K. van den Berg, Juan F. Alzate, Carlos A. Arango-Franco, Vritika Batura, Andrea R. Bernasconi, Barbara Boardman, Claire Booth, Siobhan O. Burns, Felipe Cabarcas, Nadine Cerf Bensussan, Fabienne Charbit-Henrion, Anniek Corveleyn, Caroline Deswarte, María Esnaola Azcoiti, Dirk Foell, John I. Gallin, Carlos Garcés, Margarida Guedes, Claas H. Hinze, Steven M. Holland, Stephen M. Hughes, Patricio Ibañez, Harry L. Malech, Isabelle Meyts, Marcela Moncada-Velez, Kunihiko Moriya, Esmeralda Neves, Matias Oleastro, Laura Perez, Vimel Rattina, Carmen Oleaga-Quintas, Neil Warner, Aleixo M. Muise, Jeanet Serafin López, Eunice Trindade, Julia Vasconselos, Severine Vermeire, Helmut Wittkowski, Austen Worth, Laurent Abel, Mary C. Dinauer, Peter D. Arkwright, Dirk Roos, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Taco W. Kuijpers, Jacinta Bustamante
DNA damaging chemotherapy and radiation therapy are integrated into the treatment paradigm of the majority of cancer patients. Recently, immunotherapy that targets the immunosuppressive interaction between Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 has been approved for malignancies including non-small lung cancer (NSCLC), melanoma, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). ATR is a DNA damage signaling kinase activated at damaged replication forks and ATR kinase inhibitors potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA damaging chemotherapies. We show here that the ATR kinase inhibitor AZD6738 combines with conformal radiation therapy to attenuate radiation-induced CD8+ T cell exhaustion and potentiate CD8+ T cell activity in mouse models of Kras-mutant cancer. Mechanistically, AZD6738 blocks radiation-induced PD-L1 upregulation on tumor cells and dramatically decreases the number of tumor-infiltrating T regulatory (Treg) cells. Remarkably, AZD6738 combines with conformal radiation therapy to generate immunologic memory in complete responder mice. Our work raises the exciting possibility that a single pharmacologic agent may enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiation while concurrently potentiating radiation-induced antitumor immune responses.
Frank P. Vendetti, Pooja Karukonda, David A. Clump, Troy Teo, Ronald Lalonde, Katriana Nugent, Matthew Ballew, Brian F. Kiesel, Jan H. Beumer, Saumendra N. Sarkar, Thomas P. Conrads, Mark J. O'Connor, Robert L. Ferris, Phuoc T. Tran, Greg M. Delgoffe, Christopher J. Bakkenist
Lysine-63 (K63)–linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3 coordinates the engagement of pattern recognition receptors to recruited adaptor proteins and downstream activator TBK1 in pathways that induce type I interferon (IFN). Whether auto-ubiquitination or other E3 ligases mediate K63-linked TRAF3 polyubiquitination remains unclear. We demonstrated that mice deficient in E3 ligase gene Hectd3 remarkably increased host defense against infection by intracellular bacteria F. novicida, Mycobacterium, and Listeria by limiting bacterial dissemination. In the absence of HECTD3, type I IFN response was impaired during bacterial infection both in vivo and in vitro. HECTD3 regulated type I IFN production by mediating K63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3 at residue K138. The catalytic domain of HECTD3 regulated TRAF3 K63 polyubiquitination, which enabled TRAF3–TBK1 complex formation. Our study offers novel insights into mechanisms of TRAF3 modulation and provides potential therapeutic targets against infections by intracellular bacteria and inflammatory diseases.
Fubing Li, Yang Li, Huichun Liang, Tao Xu, Yanjie Kong, Maobo Huang, Ji Xiao, Xi Chen, Houjun Xia, Yingying Wu, Zhongmei Zhou, Xiaomin Guo, Chunmiao Hu, Chuanyu Yang, Xu Cheng, Ceshi Chen, Xiaopeng Qi
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) densely accumulate into tumors and potently suppress anti-tumor immune responses promoting tumor development. Targeting MDSCs in tumor immunotherapy has been hampered by lack of understanding of the molecular pathways that govern MDSC differentiation and function. Herein, we identify autophagy as a crucial pathway for MDSC-mediated suppression of anti-tumor immunity. Specifically, MDSCs in melanoma patients and mouse melanoma exhibited increased levels of functional autophagy. Ablation of autophagy in myeloid cells, significantly delayed tumor growth and endowed anti-tumor immune responses. Notably, tumor-infiltrating autophagy-deficient monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs) demonstrated impaired suppressive activity in vitro and in vivo, while transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in genes related to lysosomal function. Accordingly, autophagy-deficient M-MDSCs exhibited impaired lysosomal degradation thereby enhancing surface expression of MHC class II molecules, resulting in efficient activation of tumor-specific CD4+ T cells. Finally, targeting of the membrane-associated RING-CH1 (MARCH1) E3 ubiquitin ligase, that mediates the lysosomal degradation of MHC II, in M-MDSCs, attenuated their suppressive function, and resulted in significantly decreased tumor volume followed by development of a robust anti-tumor immunity. Collectively, these findings depict autophagy as a novel molecular target of MDSC-mediated suppression of anti-tumor immunity.
Themis Alissafi, Aikaterini Hatzioannou, Konstantinos Mintzas, Roza Maria Barouni, Aggelos Banos, Sundary Sormendi, Alexandros Polyzos, Maria Xilouri, Ben Wielockx, Helen Gogas, Panayotis Verginis
In the mid-1990s, whole-cell (wP) pertussis vaccines were associated with local and systemic adverse events, which prompted their replacement with acellular (aP) vaccines in many high-income countries. In the past decade rates of pertussis disease have increased in children receiving only acellular pertussis vaccines. We compared the immune responses to acellular pertussis boosters in children who received their initial doses with either wP or aP vaccines using activation-induced marker (AIM) assays. Specifically, we examined pertussis-specific memory CD4+ T cell responses ex vivo, highlighting a Type 2/Th2 versus Type 1/Th1 and Th17 differential polarization as a function of childhood vaccination. Remarkably, after a contemporary aP booster, cells from donors originally primed with aP were 1) associated with increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-9 and TGF-β and decreased IFNγ and IL-17 production; 2) defective in their ex vivo capacity to expand memory cells; and 3) less capable to proliferate in vitro. These differences appeared to be T cell-specific, since equivalent increases of antibody titers and plasmablasts after aP boost were seen in both groups. In conclusion, our data suggest that long lasting effects and differential polarization and proliferation exists between adults originally vaccinated with aP versus wP despite repeated acellular boosters.
Ricardo da Silva Antunes, Mariana Babor, Chelsea Carpenter, Natalie Khalil, Mario Cortese, Alexander J Mentzer, Grégory Seumois, Christopher D. Petro, Lisa A. Purcell, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Shane Crotty, Bali Pulendran, Bjorn Peters, Alessandro Sette
HIV infection changes the lymph node (LN) tissue architecture, potentially impairing the immunologic response to antigenic challenge. The tissue-resident immune cell dynamics in virologically suppressed HIV+ patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are not clear. We obtained LN biopsies before and 10 to 14 days after trivalent seasonal influenza immunization from healthy controls (HCs) and HIV+ volunteers on cART to investigate CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) and B cell dynamics by flow cytometry and quantitative imaging analysis. Prior to vaccination, compared with those in HCs, HIV+ LNs exhibited an altered follicular architecture, but harbored higher numbers of Tfh cells and increased IgG+ follicular memory B cells. Moreover, Tfh cell numbers were dependent upon preservation of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network and were predictive of the magnitude of the vaccine-induced IgG responses. Interestingly, postvaccination LN samples in HIV+ participants had significantly (P = 0.0179) reduced Tfh cell numbers compared with prevaccination samples, without evidence for peripheral Tfh (pTfh) cell reduction. We conclude that influenza vaccination alters the cellularity of draining LNs of HIV+ persons in conjunction with development of antigen-specific humoral responses. The underlying mechanism of Tfh cell decline warrants further investigation, as it could bear implications for the rational design of HIV vaccines.
Eirini Moysi, Suresh Pallikkuth, Leslie R. De Armas, Louis E. Gonzalez, David Ambrozak, Varghese George, David Huddleston, Rajendra Pahwa, Richard A. Koup, Constantinos Petrovas, Savita Pahwa
EZH2-mediated epigenetic regulation of T cell differentiation and regulatory T cell function has been described previously; however, the role of EZH2 in T cell–mediated anti-tumor immunity, especially in the context of immune checkpoint therapy, is not understood. Here, we showed that genetic depletion of EZH2 in regulatory T cells (FoxP3creEZH2fl/fl mice) leads to robust anti-tumor immunity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 in human T cells using CPI-1205 elicited phenotypic and functional alterations of the regulatory T cells and enhanced cytotoxic activity of effector T cells. We observed that ipilimumab (anti–CTLA-4) increased EZH2 expression in peripheral T cells from treated patients. We hypothesized that inhibition of EZH2 expression in T cells would increase the effectiveness of anti–CTLA-4 therapy, which we tested in murine models. Collectively, our data demonstrated that modulating EZH2 expression in T cells can improve anti-tumor responses elicited by anti–CTLA-4 therapy, which provides a strong rationale for a combination trial of CPI-1205 plus ipilimumab.
Sangeeta Goswami, Irina Apostolou, Jan Zhang, Jill Skepner, Swetha Anandhan, Xuejun Zhang, Liangwen Xiong, Patrick Trojer, Ana Aparicio, Sumit K. Subudhi, James P. Allison, Hao Zhao, Padmanee Sharma