Angiogenesis and vascular remodeling support fibroproliferative processes; however, no study has addressed the importance of angiogenesis during fibro-obliteration of the allograft airway during bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) that occurs after lung transplantation. The ELR+ CXC chemokines both mediate neutrophil recruitment and promote angiogenesis. Their shared endothelial cell receptor is the G-coupled protein receptor CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2). We found that elevated levels of multiple ELR+ CXC chemokines correlated with the presence of BOS. Proof-of-concept studies using a murine model of BOS not only demonstrated an early neutrophil infiltration but also marked vascular remodeling in the tracheal allografts. In addition, tracheal allograft ELR+ CXC chemokines were persistently expressed even in the absence of significant neutrophil infiltration and were temporally associated with vascular remodeling during fibro-obliteration of the tracheal allograft. Furthermore, in neutralizing studies, treatment with anti-CXCR2 Abs inhibited early neutrophil infiltration and later vascular remodeling, which resulted in the attenuation of murine BOS. A more profound attenuation of fibro-obliteration was seen when CXCR2–/– mice received cyclosporin A. This supports the notion that the CXCR2/CXCR2 ligand biological axis has a bimodal function during the course of BOS: early, it is important for neutrophil recruitment and later, during fibro-obliteration, it is important for vascular remodeling independent of neutrophil recruitment.
John A. Belperio, Michael P. Keane, Marie D. Burdick, Brigitte Gomperts, Ying Ying Xue, Kurt Hong, Javier Mestas, Abbas Ardehali, Borna Mehrad, Rajan Saggar, Joseph P. Lynch III, David J. Ross, Robert M. Strieter
The interactions of transformed cells with the surrounding stromal cells are of importance for tumor progression and metastasis. The relevance of adipocyte-derived factors to breast cancer cell survival and growth is well established. However, it remains unknown which specific adipocyte-derived factors are most critical in this process. Collagen VI is abundantly expressed in adipocytes. Collagen–/– mice in the background of the mouse mammary tumor virus/polyoma virus middle T oncogene (MMTV-PyMT) mammary cancer model demonstrate dramatically reduced rates of early hyperplasia and primary tumor growth. Collagen VI promotes its growth-stimulatory and pro-survival effects in part by signaling through the NG2/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan receptor expressed on the surface of malignant ductal epithelial cells to sequentially activate Akt and β-catenin and stabilize cyclin D1. Levels of the carboxyterminal domain of collagen VIα3, a proteolytic product of the full-length molecule, are dramatically upregulated in murine and human breast cancer lesions. The same fragment exerts potent growth-stimulatory effects on MCF-7 cells in vitro. Therefore, adipocytes play a vital role in defining the ECM environment for normal and tumor-derived ductal epithelial cells and contribute significantly to tumor growth at early stages through secretion and processing of collagen VI.
Puneeth Iyengar, Virginia Espina, Terence W. Williams, Ying Lin, David Berry, Linda A. Jelicks, Hyangkyu Lee, Karla Temple, Reed Graves, Jeffrey Pollard, Neeru Chopra, Robert G. Russell, Ram Sasisekharan, Bruce J. Trock, Marc Lippman, Valerie S. Calvert, Emanuel F. Petricoin III, Lance Liotta, Ekaterina Dadachova, Richard G. Pestell, Michael P. Lisanti, Paolo Bonaldo, Philipp E. Scherer
Current models of T cell memory implicate a critical role for IL-7 in the effector-to-memory transition, raising the possibility that IL-7 therapy might enhance vaccine responses. IL-7 has not been studied, to our knowledge, before now for adjuvant activity. We administered recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) to mice during immunization against the male antigen HY and compared these results with those obtained from mice immunized with rhIL-2 and rhIL-15. Administration of rhIL-7 or rhIL-15, but not rhIL-2, increased effector cells directed against these dominant antigens and dramatically enhanced CD8+ effectors to subdominant antigens. The mechanisms by which the cytokines augmented effector pool generation were multifactorial and included rhIL-7–mediated costimulation and rhIL-15–mediated augmentation of the proliferative burst. The contraction phase of the antigen-specific response was exaggerated in cytokine-treated mice; however, CD8+ memory pools in rhIL-7– or rhIL-15–treated groups demonstrated superior long-term survival resulting in quantitative advantages that remained long after the cytokines were discontinued, as demonstrated by improved survival after challenge with an HY-expressing tumor undertaken several weeks after cytokine cessation. These results confirm the adjuvant activity of rhIL-15 and demonstrate that rhIL-7 also serves as a potent vaccine adjuvant that broadens immunity by augmenting responses to subdominant antigens and improving the survival of the CD8+ T cell memory pool.
Fraia Melchionda, Terry J. Fry, Matthew J. Milliron, Melissa A. McKirdy, Yutaka Tagaya, Crystal L. Mackall
Synaptopodin is the founding member of a novel class of proline-rich actin-associated proteins highly expressed in telencephalic dendrites and renal podocytes. Synaptopodin-deficient (synpo–/–) mice lack the dendritic spine apparatus and display impaired activity-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity. In contrast, the ultrastructure of podocytes in synpo–/– mice is normal. Here we show that synpo–/– mice display impaired recovery from protamine sulfate–induced podocyte foot process (FP) effacement and LPS-induced nephrotic syndrome. Similarly, synpo–/– podocytes show impaired actin filament reformation in vitro. We further demonstrate that synaptopodin exists in 3 isoforms, neuronal Synpo-short (685 AA), renal Synpo-long (903 AA), and Synpo-T (181 AA). The C terminus of Synpo-long is identical to that of Synpo-T. All 3 isoforms specifically interact with α-actinin and elongate α-actinin–induced actin filaments. synpo–/– mice lack Synpo-short and Synpo-long expression but show an upregulation of Synpo-T protein expression in podocytes, though not in the brain. Gene silencing of Synpo-T abrogates stress-fiber formation in synpo–/– podocytes, demonstrating that Synpo-T serves as a backup for Synpo-long in synpo–/– podocytes. In concert, synaptopodin regulates the actin-bundling activity of α-actinin in highly dynamic cell compartments, such as podocyte FPs and the dendritic spine apparatus.
Katsuhiko Asanuma, Kwanghee Kim, Jun Oh, Laura Giardino, Sophie Chabanis, Christian Faul, Jochen Reiser, Peter Mundel
TNF is essential for the development of glomerulonephritis, an immune-mediated disorder that is a major cause of renal failure worldwide. However, TNF has proinflammatory and immunosuppressive properties that may segregate at the level of the 2 TNF receptors (TNFRs), TNFR1 and TNFR2. TNFR1-deficient mice subjected to immune complex–mediated glomerulonephritis developed less proteinuria and glomerular injury, and fewer renal leukocyte infiltrates at early time points after disease induction, and this was associated with a reduced systemic immune response to nephrotoxic rabbit IgG. However, proteinuria and renal pathology were similar to those in wild-type controls at later time points, when lack of TNFR1 resulted in excessive renal T cell accumulation and an associated reduction in apoptosis of these cells. In sharp contrast, TNFR2-deficient mice were completely protected from glomerulonephritis at all time points, despite an intact systemic immune response. TNFR2 was induced on glomerular endothelial cells of nephritic kidneys, and TNFR2 expression on intrinsic cells, but not leukocytes, was essential for glomerulonephritis and glomerular complement deposition. Thus, TNFR1 promotes systemic immune responses and renal T cell death, while intrinsic cell TNFR2 plays a critical role in complement-dependent tissue injury. Therefore, therapeutic blockade specifically of TNFR2 may be a promising strategy in the treatment of immune-mediated glomerulonephritis.
Volker Vielhauer, George Stavrakis, Tanya N. Mayadas
In diabetic LDLR–/– mice, an ectopic BMP2-Msx2 gene regulatory program is upregulated in association with vascular calcification. We verified the procalcific actions of aortic Msx2 expression in vivo. CMV-Msx2 transgenic (CMV-Msx2Tg+) mice expressed 3-fold higher levels of aortic Msx2 than nontransgenic littermates. On high-fat diets, CMV-Msx2Tg+ mice exhibited marked cardiovascular calcification involving aortic and coronary tunica media. This corresponded to regions of Msx2 immunoreactivity in adjacent adventitial myofibroblasts, suggesting a potential paracrine osteogenic signal. To better understand Msx2-regulated calcification, we studied actions in 10T1/2 cells. We found that conditioned media from Msx2-transduced 10T1/2 cells (Msx2-CM) is both pro-osteogenic and adipostatic; these features are characteristic of Wnt signaling. Msx2-CM stimulated Wnt-dependent TCF/LEF transcription, and Msx2-transduced cells exhibited increased nuclear β-catenin localization with concomitant alkaline phosphatase induction. Msx2 upregulated Wnt3a and Wnt7a but downregulated expression of the canonical inhibitor Dkk1. Dkk1 treatment reversed osteogenic and adipostatic actions of Msx2. Teriparatide, a PTH1R agonist that inhibits murine vascular calcification, suppressed vascular BMP2-Msx2-Wnt signaling. Analyses of CMV-Msx2Tg+ mice confirmed that Msx2 suppresses aortic Dkk1 and upregulates vascular Wnts; moreover, TOPGAL+ (Wnt reporter); CMV-Msx2Tg+ mice exhibited augmented aortic LacZ expression. Thus, Msx2-expressing cells elaborated an osteogenic milieu that promotes vascular calcification in part via paracrine Wnt signals.
Jian-Su Shao, Su-Li Cheng, Joyce M. Pingsterhaus, Nichole Charlton-Kachigian, Arleen P. Loewy, Dwight A. Towler
Cardiac pressure load stimulates hypertrophy, often leading to chamber dilation and dysfunction. ROS contribute to this process. Here we show that uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase–3 (NOS3) plays a major role in pressure load–induced myocardial ROS and consequent chamber remodeling/hypertrophy. Chronic transverse aortic constriction (TAC; for 3 and 9 weeks) in control mice induced marked cardiac hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. Mice lacking NOS3 displayed modest and concentric hypertrophy to TAC with preserved function. NOS3–/– TAC hearts developed less fibrosis, myocyte hypertrophy, and fetal gene re-expression (B-natriuretic peptide and α–skeletal actin). ROS, nitrotyrosine, and gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) zymogen activity markedly increased in control TAC, but not in NOS3–/– TAC, hearts. TAC induced NOS3 uncoupling in the heart, reflected by reduced NOS3 dimer and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), increased NOS3-dependent generation of ROS, and lowered Ca2+-dependent NOS activity. Cotreatment with BH4 prevented NOS3 uncoupling and inhibited ROS, resulting in concentric nondilated hypertrophy. Mice given the antioxidant tetrahydroneopterin as a control did not display changes in TAC response. Thus, pressure overload triggers NOS3 uncoupling as a prominent source of myocardial ROS that contribute to dilatory remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Reversal of this process by BH4 suggests a potential treatment to ameliorate the pathophysiology of chronic pressure-induced hypertrophy.
Eiki Takimoto, Hunter C. Champion, Manxiang Li, Shuxun Ren, E. Rene Rodriguez, Barbara Tavazzi, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Nazareno Paolocci, Kathleen L. Gabrielson, Yibin Wang, David A. Kass
Nitrite represents a circulating and tissue storage form of NO whose bioactivation is mediated by the enzymatic action of xanthine oxidoreductase, nonenzymatic disproportionation, and reduction by deoxyhemoglobin, myoglobin, and tissue heme proteins. Because the rate of NO generation from nitrite is linearly dependent on reductions in oxygen and pH levels, we hypothesized that nitrite would be reduced to NO in ischemic tissue and exert NO-dependent protective effects. Solutions of sodium nitrite were administered in the setting of hepatic and cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. In hepatic I/R, nitrite exerted profound dose-dependent protective effects on cellular necrosis and apoptosis, with highly significant protective effects observed at near-physiological nitrite concentrations. In myocardial I/R injury, nitrite reduced cardiac infarct size by 67%. Consistent with hypoxia-dependent nitrite bioactivation, nitrite was reduced to NO, S-nitrosothiols, N-nitros-amines, and iron-nitrosylated heme proteins within 1–30 minutes of reperfusion. Nitrite-mediated protection of both the liver and the heart was dependent on NO generation and independent of eNOS and heme oxygenase-1 enzyme activities. These results suggest that nitrite is a biological storage reserve of NO subserving a critical function in tissue protection from ischemic injury. These studies reveal an unexpected and novel therapy for diseases such as myocardial infarction, organ preservation and transplantation, and shock states.
Mark R. Duranski, James J.M. Greer, Andre Dejam, Sathya Jaganmohan, Neil Hogg, William Langston, Rakesh P. Patel, Shaw-Fang Yet, Xunde Wang, Christopher G. Kevil, Mark T. Gladwin, David J. Lefer
A specific hypoglycosylated isoform of the complement regulator membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed on the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) of spermatozoa. This membrane is exposed after the acrosome reaction, an exocytosis event that occurs upon contact with the zona pellucida. We initiated this investigation to assess MCP’s regulatory function in situ on spermatozoa. Upon exposure of human spermatozoa to autologous serum or follicular fluid, we unexpectedly observed that acrosome-reacted spermatozoa activated the complement cascade efficiently through C3 but not beyond. Using FACS to simultaneously evaluate viability, acrosomal status, and complement deposition, we found that complement activation was initiated by C-reactive protein (CRP) and was C1q, C2, and factor B dependent. This pattern is consistent with engagement of the classical pathway followed by amplification through the alternative pathway. C3b deposition was targeted to the IAM, where it was cleaved to C3bi. Factor H, and not MCP, was the cofactor responsible for C3b cleavage. We propose that this localized deposition of complement fragments aids in the fusion process between the spermatozoa and egg, in a role akin to that of complement in immune adherence. In addition, we speculate that this “targeted and restricted” form of complement activation on host cells is a common strategy to handle modified self.
Rebecca C. Riley-Vargas, Susan Lanzendorf, John P. Atkinson
Infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease) is characterized by spontaneous episodes of subperiosteal new bone formation along 1 or more bones commencing within the first 5 months of life. A genome-wide screen for genetic linkage in a large family with an autosomal dominant form of Caffey disease (ADC) revealed a locus on chromosome 17q21 (LOD score, 6.78). Affected individuals and obligate carriers were heterozygous for a missense mutation (3040C↠T) in exon 41 of the gene encoding the α1(I) chain of type I collagen (COL1A1), altering residue 836 (R836C) in the triple-helical domain of this chain. The same mutation was identified in affected members of 2 unrelated, smaller families with ADC, but not in 2 prenatal cases and not in more than 300 chromosomes from healthy individuals. Fibroblast cultures from an affected individual produced abnormal disulfide-bonded dimeric α1(I) chains. Dermal collagen fibrils of the same individual were larger, more variable in shape and size, and less densely packed than those in control samples. Individuals bearing the mutation, whether they had experienced an episode of cortical hyperostosis or not, had joint hyperlaxity, hyperextensible skin, and inguinal hernias resembling symptoms of a mild form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III. These findings extend the spectrum of COL1A1-related diseases to include a hyperostotic disorder.
Robert C. Gensure, Outi Mäkitie, Catherine Barclay, Catherine Chan, Steven R. DePalma, Murat Bastepe, Hilal Abuzahra, Richard Couper, Stefan Mundlos, David Sillence, Leena Ala Kokko, Jonathan G. Seidman, William G. Cole, Harald Jüppner
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